An Analysis of Social Consensus
in Imam Khomeini's Thoughts With Emphasis on Rightful Pluralism


Mohammad Reza Karimivala / Assistant professor of department of Islamic sciences, Qom University      r.karimivala@qom.ac.ir

Received: 2014/03/18- Accepted: 2014/09/15



Providing the necessary grounds for the realization of different thoughts, tastes and views about socio-political issues is one of the important achievements of the Islamic Revolution of Iran with the aim of truly guiding Islamic society towards real felicity on the basis of revealed teachings by removing the obscurities of tyranny. However, it is clear that the achievement of this aim is dependent on the immunity against any kind of deviation from the indicator of national unity and empathy, which represents the main symbol of the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran.

The present paper seeks to elaborate on the status of Imam Khomeini’s thoughts among the thoughts of those who adopt “resemblance-oriented”, “stabilization-oriented” and “pluralistic” views, explain ideological beliefs and opine about socio-political issues. Accordingly, affirming the centrality national unity based on the pluralistic view of the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, this paper proves that this centrality is based on the fundamental principles of unity among Muslim Iranians; namely, Islam, the Constitution and national interests.

Key words: Imam Khomeini, thought, opine, pluralism, Islam, social consensus.

The Modus Operands of Islamic Fiqh
(Jurisprudence) for Reviving and Preserving Human Dignity

Ghasim Shabanniya / Assistant professor of IKI                            shaban1351@yahoo.com

Received: 2014/04/20 - Accepted: 2014/09/06



Although different schools are always concerned with preserving and promoting human dignity and each school provides certain modus operands to achieve this end, Islamic fiqh has a transcendent approach in this regard, and in some cases it provides unique modus operands. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper provides a number of important modus operands which Islamic fiqh presents for preserving human dignity. Expanding monotheistic thought in human societies; giving priority to spiritual affairs, providing every man with a pure and spiritual environment, preserving one's life, property and good reputation; treating all human beings fairly and equitably, and bringing order, security, welfare and tranquility to citizens are among the transcendent injunctions of Islam, which contribute to preserving human dignity in its best form. The relationship between these divine injunctions and human dignity is clearly explained in this paper.

Key words: Islamic fiqh, human dignity, human society, modus operands.

Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil as the Basis of Struggle against Taghut (evil) Regime according to Ayatollah Golpaygani’s Fiqhi Principles (1341-1357- solar)

Hussein Arjini / Assistant professor of University of Islamic Sciences        arjini4@gmail.com

Received: 2014/04/28 - Accepted: 2014/09/14



Shi’a fiqh proposes several fiqhi principles for the struggle against taghut regime; such as jihad, rejection of infidels’ authority, the necessity of establishing Islamic government and, most importantly, enjoining good and forbidding evil. According to Ayatollah Golpaygani’s view, the principle of enjoining good and forbidding evil is the basis for the struggle and rise against the evil deeds of taghut regime and the establishment of Islamic government.

The present paper, first, elaborates on the principle of enjoining good and forbidding evil in the light of Ayatollah Golpaygani’s fiqhi view. Then, it compares these principles with his stances for the period between 1341 solar and the victory of the Islamic Revolution, using a historical-analytical approach.

  Regarding the conditions and degrees of enjoining the good and forbidding evil, Ayatollah Golpaygani, first tried through cautionary words to attract peoples attention to the evil deeds of Pahlavi regime. Then when these evil deeds increased, he condemned the policy of the regime and showed his resentment towards it, taking into regard the conditions and stages of the principle of enjoining good and forbidding evil. At the climax of the revolutionary struggles      from 1341 through 1357 solar, he emphasized on offering one's life and property for the sake of enacting Islamic law and establishing Islamic system as the highest stage of enjoining good and forbidding evil, and called for the continuation of struggle to achieve the ultimate aim, that is, overthrowing Pahlavi regime and establishment of Islamic system.

Key words: enjoining good and forbidding evil, revolution, fiqhi principles, stances, Ayatollah Golpaygani.

A Fiqhi Review of Choosing of the Best and the Acceptable Good

Abulfazl Imami Meiboodi / PhD student of political fiqh, Al-Mustafa international University abolfazlemami@chmail.ir

Seyyed Mustafa Mirmohammadi Meiboodi / PhD student of general law, Tehran University Mo.mirmohamadi@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2014/04/30 - Accepted: 2014/09/15                                                


Today, “choosing the best” is one of the most challenging political issues among political reference groups. The present paper seeks, through comparing two fiqhi principles; “meysoor (possible)” and “maqis (compared)” to investigate discuss this challenge and show that abandoning "the best” and choosing "the  acceptable good" is contrary to fiqhi principles. Furthermore, the legitimacy of choosing "the best" and illegitimacy of choosing "the acceptable good" is directly related to the issue of efficiency. Therefore, actions should be taken to remove the false obstacles to the acceptability of the best candidate as a necessary preliminary. Finally, it reviews the fiqhi principles of the unlawfulness of choosing someone other than the best.

Key words: choosing the best, acceptable good, parrying the most corrupt with the corrupt, principle of maqis, principle of meysoor, principle of employment, political fiqh, fiqh of election.

The Theory of the Guardianship
of Religious Jurist with Emphasis on Ayatollah Sistani’s View


Seyyed Ibrahim Husseini / Assistant professor of IKI                                      sehoseini@hotmail.com

Received: 2014/04/25 - Accepted: 2014/09/08



 The question of establishment of an Islamic government in Iran on the basis of the Theory of guardianship of Religious Jurist has become a source of general and international interest. Therefore, it is very necessary to examine the views held by great faqihs (jurists) about this topic. Explaining the theological foundation of guardianship of religious jurist, the present paper elaborates on its legitimacy and its range. The study is based on Ayatollah Sistani’s legal works of fiqh and his practical measures. Theoretically, he believes in the correlation between religion and politics in three fields: issuing fatwa, judgment and non-litigious affairs in their broad sense, in addition to some other functions which the infallible Imam and Muslim ruler have. Therefore, regarding the political leadership of the society, he accepts the idea of guardianship of the faqih who enjoys all the requirements and who is accepted by most believers with the aim of safe guarding the system of the Islamic nation. Therefore, although he does not believe in the theory of absolute guardianship of religious jurist, he adopts a similar views to this theory through his expanding the scope of non-litigious affairs and exercising guardianship of religious jurist in as far as general affairs are concerned when the order of Islamic society is in danger.

Key words: guardianship of religious jurist, Sistani, political thought, legitimacy, Islamic government, non-litigious affair, designation, absolute guardianship, religious authority.

The Divine Legitimacy of Establishing
a Government during Occultation, in the light of Allamah Naiini’s Views

Mohammad Hadi Zarafshan / PhD student of general law, sciences and research unit of Azad Islamic University                                 

Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/06/23                                                        hadi.zar@gmail.com


According to the theory of “designation” only a just faqih (jurist) who enjoys all the requirements is generally designated for the guardianship of Muslim and regarded legitimate through Divine command and through the decree of Imams during occultation. The principle of grace (lutf) and ‘Omar b. Hanzaleh's narration which is approved by religious scholars are among the most important intellectual and tradition-based proofs of this theory. According to Allamah Naiini’s view, establishing a constitutional government during the lifetime of the infallible Imams is the same government as that of Imams and it is entrusted to faqihs during occultation because government is generally deemed legitimate only by Islamic law and through designation. Therefore, Allamah Naiini believes in the designated guardianship of faqihs because he openly accepts ‘Omar b. Hanzaleh’s accepted tradition. However, he sees that since faqihs’ coming to power under the conditions of his time is not possible, he calls for conventional constitutionality, which demands faqhis' permission and approval, without which it will be illegitimate.

Key words: legitimacy, theory of designation, theory of election, general designation, Allamah Naiini’s theory of constitutional government.

Islamic Awakening; Civilizational Uprising
of Islam and the Supreme Leader’s View about Islamic Awakening

Abuzar Mazaheri / Assistant professor of IKI                                  mashrooteh@qabas.net

Received: 2014/02/07 - Accepted: 2014/06/23



According to the theory of “civilizational uprising”, Islamic awakening is a revolutionary and identity-giving movement which has been developing for 150 years and passed through several stages. God’s will, the teachings of Islam and the unequal struggle of religious scholars and Muslim world is behind this awakening, which has become a sign of the civilizational property of Islam. This continuous movement, including the outcries and struggle against tyranny and colonialism, the long period of experience and the recent civilizational uprising, has prepared the ground for awakening and independence and identity-seeking. During this period, the Islamic Revolution of Iran could direct this movement, with in more than thirty years of experience and successful performance, and turn in from the state of struggle, and revolution to a state of systemization and pursuit of perfection towards creating Islamic civilization. Accordingly, the recent uprisings in the world of Islam take the form of a civilizational struggle, and follow the Islamic Revolution in Iran as an inspiring example. This struggle is going on between the western civilization and the greatest would-be civilization, i.e. Islam, and the Islamic Revolution acts as its representative.

Key words: Islamic awakening, civilizational uprising of Islam, Islamic revolution, Islamic civilization, Islamic international, Islamic identity.