Abstracts

The Role of Islamic Anthropology
in Demonstrating the Aspects of the Political System in Islam

Mahdi Omidi / Assistant professor and faculty member of IKI                                                    

Gholam Hussein Hamzehkhani / PhD student of teaching theoretical foundations of Islam   

Received: 2016/02/03 - Accepted: 2016/06/30                  hamzekhani171338@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Anthropology is one of the core disciplines in the human sciences. The way of understanding and demonstrating man's inherent and subordinate characteristics and traits depends on the final results of scientific theories. A study of the early growth and development of man's characteristics within the society requires a careful look into the issue of civilization and the type of political system consistent with these characteristics.

In Islamic anthropology, the reality of man and his existential dimensions and fundamental characteristics can be explained, described and analyzed by referring to two sources of reason and transmission (revelation). Accordingly, man is created by the Knowing, All-wise and Most powerful God and he is connected with and in need of Him in his existence and survival. Besides, he is under God's absolute and general guardianship and lordship from the moment of birth until death. Man has two forms: unstable body and eternal pure soul. The body is the means of the transcendence of soul and the material world is a prelude to man’s spiritual life and future life. On the other hand, man has several inherent capacities and faculties; such as, love of one’s self, love of perfection, altruism, reason, will, free choice, feelings and emotions, and he can achieve perfection, have relationship with the metaphysical factors and reach the station of being God's vicegerent. No doubt, any type of anthropology needs to have its own political system, and any political system is affected by its own anthropology in, at least, three levels: principles, structure and aims, and it is based on its basic principles. The present paper seeks to elaborate on the effective, orientating and determining role of Islamic anthropology in the three levels of the political system in Islam.

Key words: Islamic anthropology, political system in Islam, basic principles, aims, structure.


The Human Nature and Political Theory

Mohammad Shojaiyan / Assistant professor of political sciences department, Hawzah and University research center                                       shojaiyan@rihu.ac.ir

Received: 2016/01/17 - Accepted: 2016/07/03

 

Abstract

The relationship between human nature and political theory is one of the most important debates in the analytical study of any political theory. Generally, political thinkers base their ideas about the legitimacy of their theories about policy and government on their own explanation and understanding of human nature. The main idea of this research is that human nature cannot and should not be considered as an important issue merely in politics and political theory as in the case of justice, equality and or freedom; rather, it is, in fact, a framework, in which political theory and perception of politics takes form. If special attention is given to the issue of human nature, then many details about political theory will be concealed, because some inconsistencies and ambiguities in political theories can be ascribed to the ambiguity about and incoherence in the conception of the political theoreticians of human nature. In political ideas and political theories, in particular, fundamentality of human nature means that human nature, in fact, forms the framework, in which political theory is formed. Our conception of human nature clarifies the kind of content which the aim of political theory should have. 

Key words: human nature, political theory, state, Aristotle.


Political Sovereignty of the Islamic Community and its Features in Meccan Chapters of Quran (Studying the Chapter Taha)

 

Seyyed Mahmood Tayeb Hosseini / Associate professor of the research center of University   

Received: 2016/02/27 - Accepted: 2016/08/27          tayyebhoseini@rihu.ac.ir

 

Abstract

Shia believes that the position of sovereignty in an Islamic community is a divine position that has been specified by God and among the companion of the prophet of Islam; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has been selected on behalf of God for this position after the prophet of Islam and except him no one was worthy of this position. In order to prove this belief Shia contents to Quran and narration`s rational reasons, however so far to do so, there has been less content to Meccan chapters and they also contented to the verses revealed in Medina. The present study tries to content to Meccan chapters by studying the chapter Taha. Aside from proving Imam Ali`s governance and its necessity on the entire Islamic community after the prophet of Islam, this paper attempts to claim the inherent links of Quran and politics and Quran’s special attention to sovereignty.

Key words: Quran, political sovereignty, prophet`s caliph, imam Ali.  


The Concept of Just Imam in the Chapter
“the Fight with the Oppressors”

Mahdi Abutorabi / Assistant Professor IKI                                               abotaleby@gmail.com

Amar Abutorabi /                          ab.ammar1376@chmail.ir

Received: 2015/08/18 - Accepted: 2016/02/03

 

Abstract

   The term” just Imam’’ is one of the terms used in Shiah figh (Jurisprudence) which has special rules. This term is generally comes in the sections that deal with social aspects or the issues that are related in some way government. ‘’The Fight with Oppressors” is one of the sections that is of great importance. This paper seeks to answer the question whether the concept of just Imam which comes in this section appertains to the infallible or it also includes Faqih (jurisprudents). When we examine jurisprudent`s words and the words which are equivalent to the term just Imam and review the narrations in “Wasael-al Shiah” and “Tahzib al-Al`ahkam we find that this concept includes the faqih (jurisprudent), as well; and  know that rising against the ruling faqih (jurisprudent) is the same as rising against an infallible.

 Key words: just Imam, just sovereign, jurisprudent, the rebellious, oppressors.   


Justice in the Relations between People and Managing Agents in the Light of the Fundamental Rules of Islamic Government

Sayyed Ali Mirdamad Najafabadi / Assistant professor of IKI                                                               am42476@gmail.com

Received: 2015/11/12 - Accepted: 2016/04/25

 

Abstract

One of the instances of social justice is administering justice in the relations between managing agents and people. This relation is not steady. Thus, the administration of justice should be given special attention. If we go through the religious sources, we can have access to the fundamental components and the rules of Islamic governments which contribute to the administration of justice and guarantee the rights of all citizens in this regard. This paper gives a clear account of these rules and components. The research results show that the such rules like the conditions and characteristics of managing agents, their availability, their being equal with other citizens in the eyes of law, observing the behavior of agents, considering the complaints of people against them as formal and actively investigating people’ complaints  in this respect are among the rules which the Islamic government observe in order to administer the justice in the relations between agent and people and safeguard the rights of all citizens.

Keywords: social justice, agents’ behavior, Islamic government structure, the rights of all citizens.


The Role of '' Good Governance''
in Building on Agreeable Life in the Lifestyle of Imam Ali (a)

Sara Akbari/ MA student of political sciences, Ferdosi University, Mashhad.                    

                                                                                                              sa_ak195@stu_mail.um.ac.ir

Maryam file kesh/ MA student of political sciences, Ferdosi University, Mashhad                    

                                                                                      maryamfilekesh@yahoo.com

Seyyed Mohammad Ali Taghavi/ associate professor of political sciences department, Ferdosi University, Mashhad    smataghavi@um.ac.ir

Received: 2016/01/09 - Accepted: 2016/06/11

 

Abstract

Throughout history, the need for a governmental system and social discipline is the reason for not having societies without a government, leadership or political management. On the other hand, the stabling of a good government system is among the factors which contribute to the continuation of a good political government. Islam has also propounded principles, frameworks and guidelines in the area of political authority and governance, according to which politicians and the elite should act. The aim of this paper is to investigate the kind of leadership and governance exercised by Imam Ali as a magnificent example of ‘’good governance’’. In order to achieve this goal, the indexes of good governance are reviewed and then the mentioned principles in the governmental lifestyle of Imam Ali are investigated. The reason foe citing Imam Ali’s government as a good example is that, despite the hard political conditions and state of turmoil which Imam Ali encountered in his caliphate during (35-40 AH) , he offered a clear and precise picture of ‘’government’’ and propounded valuable ideas about the principles of good governance which are considered reliable by every governor and at all times. If we carefully consider Imam Ali’s orders, governmental circulars, speeches and advice to his agents, we will see that his aim was not only forming a government, but also establishing a good political system which observes the principles of Islam to create a good society, because a good government is a ground for building an agreeable life.

Key words: Imam Ali (pbuh), governor, good governance, agreeable life, people.