Legal Rules Governing Islamic State`s Negotiations with other States

Ghasem Shaban Nia / Assistant professor, IKI                                shaban1351@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/05/24 - Accepted: 2016/10/14



Negotiation is one of the means of achieving foreign policy in Islam. Using techniques, ground rules and skills to the speedy achieving of negotiation goals, are of the important issues discussed. Presenting some ground rules, Islamic jurisprudence tries to lead the results of the negotiation towards the manifestation of Islamic state`s goals. Using a descriptive-analytic method and inferring reliable jurisprudence resources, this study attempts to show that before negotiations, negotiators must welcome suggesting peace; they must negotiate from the position of authority and enter into the talks by a precise analysis of the parties. Behavior balance, emphasis on commonalities, philosophical dialogue, understanding the position, concealing hostility, not losing oneself while being flexible when necessary, expressing the provisions of the treaty and writing the results of the talks are highly recommended during the negotiations. After negotiations, it is necessary to maintain awareness to the deception of the enemy, be high-minded to the treaty, and retaliate in cases each party violates the treaty.

Key words: negotiation, Islamic state, jurisprudence, principles, pre-negotiation, during negotiation, post-negotiation.   

Juridical Typology of Political Negotiation with the Enemies according to the History (Considering the Negotiation with the U.S.)

Morjeza Tavakoli Mohammadi / Assistant Professor, University of Religions And Denominations         

Received: 2016/09/03 - Accepted: 2017/01/08                                       tavakoli_28@yahoo.com



Political negotiation is a diplomatic method which in modern times has developed. In political negotiation with enemies there are some conflicts in interests and harms, necessities, purposes, parties of negotiations, international feedbacks, religious ideology etc. These conflicts are mostly about negotiation with the U.S. For one reason it is due to the dynamism of diplomatic system and on the other hand it leads to duality and doubt in adopting strategies. Using an analytic-descriptive approach and considering Islam`s history and the prophet`s lifestyle and Ahl Al-Beit (peace be upon them) and juridical foundations, this paper deals with typology of different kinds of negotiations to determine the policy of the Islamic state. Grouping negotiations of the prophet and Ahl Al-Beit in five categories, this study analyzes modern negotiations. This matter is the primary reason that the performance of the prophet and Ahl Al-Beit turns out to be a pattern for any modern negotiation, so that any negotiation, especially with the U.S. does not appear as the same. Eventually, considering the back ground that is obtained from the history of prophet’s negotiations, invitation, advice, promoting virtue and preventing vice and negotiation with compulsion and imposition is more compatible with their way of negotiation.

Key words: political negotiation, the U.S., juridical rule, aspects, interests and harms.

The Principle of Guardianship in the International Relations from the Viewpoint of Islam; Foundations and Reasons

Seyyed Javad Ahmadi / Pd.D. Student                                                hmadi.amin2009@gmail.com

Received: 2016/07/06 - Accepted: 2016/12/14



One of the most important missions of the prophets is the realization of the right supervision and divine guardianship. Guardianship and the right supervision prepare the ground for elevation, prosperity and perfection of the humans and the communities. The principle of guardianship is the most important principle of international relations. This principle includes foundations and different defaults of speech like monotheism, leadership and jurisprudence foundations like, the principle of denying government, the principle of denying guardianship, the principle of the respecting the help to the cruel, the principle of no harm etc. verses and narrations have emphasized on this important principle. This principle should be the criteria for the Islamic governments in their relationships with other countries. The principle of guardianship specifies the context of international behavior and interactions of Islamic government. This principle is of crucial importance in cultural aspect of life. Consequently Islamic government is obliged to extend the correct beliefs and values in the communities and to prevent the imaginary, false and corrupt values.

Key words: principle, guardianship, Islam, international relationships.

Adapting Imam Ali`s (peace be upon him) Ideal Policy
on Jurisprudent Regulations

Najaf Lakzaei / Professor, Baghir Al-Olum University                            lakzaee@bou.ac.ir

 Hassan Sadeqian / MA of Political Sciences                                 hasan_sad59@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/05/15 - Accepted: 2016/10/19



Since our government is ideological, the laws must be based on religious rules and the infallibles` lifestyle. One of the primary sources for taking pattern on, is Imam Ali`s (peace be upon him) governorship. Studying his governorship shows that he never consented on neglecting the ideals, principles and religious rules, even if it meant undermining the power and ruling. Research in the sections on "conflict" or "secondary rules" indicates that based on the known rules on jurisprudence, to preserve a government, sometimes neglecting a religious rule, is legal. In such a case, the primary rule must not be emphasized. Such an insistence, is not only a sign of piety, but also is rationally and religiously discouraged. Having this fact in mind, the ideal behavior of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is not adaptable to the known jurisprudent rules. This paper seeks to examine each of these samples so that it shows that Imam Ali`s (peace be upon him) behavior were completely adapted with jurisprudent rules and they can be examined in the same manner.

Key words: political jurisprudence, idealism, Alavi lifestyle, secondary rules, conflict.

Criticism of the Orientalists` views on the Role of the Clergy in the Formation of the Islamic Revolution

Mohammad Javad Norozi / Associate professor, IKI               Mohamadjavadnorozi@yahoo.com

 Saeed Baghestani / PhD of scholastic education (Islamic Revolution Branch)                                

Received: 2016/09/06 - Accepted: 2017/01/07



The current study answers to the question that; what is the Orientals` analysis about the role of Shiite clergy in the formation of the Islamic revolution? First, based on the hypothesis of this paper, Orientals’ major analysis that is influenced by comparison with the Lord of the church, is based on east-knowing assumptions and secular view. Given this fact, the above analysis is not compatible with Islamic principles. Second, this view claims that clergy`s marital and political motives led to the revolution in Iran, while the truth is contrary. The fact remains that this study tries to have a criticizing confrontation by misinterpretations and the impact of published views on behalf of the orientalists in scientific circles.  

Key words: Islamic revolution, clergy, orientalists.

Analytic Study of the Origin of Cultural and Political Zionism


Mohammd Hossein Taheri / Assistant Professor, IKI                                    Taheri-akerdi@iki.ac.ir

 Hassan Din Panah / PhD Student of Religions, IKI                             hasandinpanah@gmail.com

Received: 2016/08/08 - Accepted: 2016/12/19



Zionism had its roots in Judaism since the year 70 AD and it was culturally raised until the 19th century. Then it was raised politically in the west. Accurate analysis of the political Zionism indicates the fact that it is not related to the cultural Zionism. The most important step in formulating the cultural Zionism is that political independence, temple establishment and returning to Palestine must be done by Messiah and after his advent. While political Zionism, executes the principle of Puritan Protestants that all these affairs must be manifested before the advent of the Jesus. Using an analytic approach, this paper tries to clarify the roots and origins of cultural and political Zionism and their inconsistency. The fact remains that cultural Zionism has its roots in Judaism, but political Zionism is rooted in nationalist Judaism and Puritan of England and America.

Keywords: Judaism, Zionism, Cultural Zionism, Religious Zionism, Political Zionism, Christian Zionism, Puritan Protestant.