Abstracts Translated by: Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

The Discourse

of Justicein the Ninth State Cabinet

Bahram Akhawan Kazemi (Assistant Professor in Faculty of Law and Political Sciences/ Shiraz University)

An investigation of the status of justice in political and social discourse in Islamic Republic [of Iran] shows extremism or negligence in these discourses: in the discourse of the construction period, justice and the cultural aspects and values were neglected to some extent; in the discourse of the reformist period, with its extremist look at political development, economic issues, justice and values were neglected. Consequently our country suffered from instabilities. In the orthodox and justice-centered discourse of the ninth state cabinet, with the revival of revolution's values and ideals, the four elements of "justice", "kindness", "material and spiritual development" and "public service" were constructed on the basis of "IRI leader's authority", and there was an attempt to pay special attention to justice and promoting it. In this discourse, however, justice was again tinted with economy, and the enforcement of justice got involved in impetuousness.

None of these discourses of revolution seems to be the perfect example of enforcing the ideals of revolution. However, all have been in the same line, the latter ones being a step forward than the formers. Therefore, we may regard the justice-centered orthodox as being less defective than two previous discourses.

KEY WRORDS: justice, the discourse of the construction period, the reformist discourse, the orthodox discourse, economic evolution, inflation

An Analysis of the State's

Economical Duties for Realizing

Economic Justice in Ideal Models of Islamic Economics

Mustafa Samiie Nasab (Faculty Member of Research Center in Imam Sadiq University)

Islam as the only school of making perfect humans pays special attention to fulfilling human's material needs, and offers special models for relationships among various social and economic institutes. In Islam, reinforcing economic bases does not aim at collecting wealth and profiteering; rather, it aims at fulfilling human's basic needs in the course of his material and spiritual growth and perfection as well as his achieving ultimate goals of creation and eradicating poverty and privation. In the present article, the methods of the state's economic activities and its duties in the ideal model of Islamic economic are discussed. The Islamic state's major duties are as follows: preparing the ground for spreading out justice and equity, for the emergence of various human's creativities, and for economic and productive activities through offering equal and just opportunities; removing unjust discriminations; and preparing the necessary facilities in every section and level.

KEY WORDS: state, economic justice, Islamic economy, ideal model

The Strategy of Development

in Religious State and Modernity

Alireza Muwaffaq (Faculty Member in Payam-e Nur University and Researcher in Academy of Islamic Culture and Thought)

Religious state as the practical symbol of Islam requires some strategies for achieving development; a development that can drive IRI towards its human and material perfection. To achieve the necessary standard for better evaluation, it is necessary, alongside any strategy, to have a reference to modernity as the objective experience of development in the western world. The strategies in general have been divided into four groups, each dividable into some minor strategies. The relation between the state and people as the factors of realization of development, the necessity of a value judgment of that development, time as an element playing a unique role in development, recognizing human and his needs as well as the necessary policies in this respect are among the main challenges against religious and western developments.

KEY WORDS: religion, religious state, modernity, strategy, development

An Introduction to the Religious State's

Duties before People's Religion and Beliefs

Abul-Qasem Fatehi (Assistant Professor in Department of Social Sciences/ Isfahan University) / Muhammad Javad Abul-Qasemi (PhD Student in Academy of Tradition Sciences/ Major of Islamic Knowledge/ Subfield of Quran and Religious Texts)

The present article uses a descriptive-analytical method as well as lipary survey to investigate some of the most important duties of religious state before people's religion and beliefs. The main question is as follows: "What is the most important duty of the religious state before people's religion and beliefs?" There have been different – sometimes opposite – views in answering this question, all of which rooted in two major views: (a) the view regarding Islam as equal to religion and the state and the holy war as tools for expansion of both religion and state; and (b) the view regarding Islam as equal to both religion and the holy war (simultaneously) and the state as the tool for expansion of religion and the holy war. The common point of the two views is that the state is responsible before people's religious culture, and the distinction between them is that the former regards a divine origin for both the state and religion but the latter does not necessarily believe in a divine origin for the state due to the state being a historical and human phenomenon which must be a tool at the service of religion and culture.

KEY WORDS: religious state, duties, religion, people's beliefs

Justice and Duties of the Religious State

Masoud Ra'ie (PhD in International Law)

Justice is human's most sacred ideal in his social life. A glimpse at the attempts by reformers and the thoughts of the cultured people in human societies nicely represents this utopia. In historical vicissitudes, a unique definition of justice cannot be acquired. This disagreement has had many consequences in social life and for civil institutes; despite the primary agreement, we see many disagreements in social institutes. One of them is related to the state's duties and the functional basis of those duties. Establishing peace, right to freedom and religious democracy are among the solutions to the abovementioned problem. The present article is seeking to determine the nature of justice as the most essential duty for the religious state, and to deal with determining its instances, discussing the state's duties through religious teachings on social justice and with a look at fairness.

KEY WORDS: state, religious state, justice, fairness, concomitance of rights, obligation

The Main Duties

of Religious State in the Realm of Culture

Ali Asghar Khandan (Supervisor of Department of Islamic Knowledge/ Imam Sadiq University) / Muslim Amiri Tayyibi (MA Student of Islamic Knowledge and Industrial Management/ Imam Sadiq University)

In the present paper, a special view on culture has been presented, a view originated from Islamic anthropological view. In view of the human's existential realms, four elements of "behavior", "inclination", "belief" and "knowledge" are considered as the cultural pillars of the society. Besides, assuming five levels for each of these pillars, we come to a comprehensive view of the culture of society. Here, two main duties of religious state are as follows: (a) recognizing cultural audiences, i.e. exact determination of status and level of mass of people in each of the four pillars; (b) preparing the ground for a cultural raise. Here, while defining cultural management, the unique factor of forming culture is regarded to be social behavior, for which some proofs and examples have been presented.

KEY WORDS: culture, cultural pillars and spheres, cultural levels, Islam, religious state, recognizing audiences, cultural raise

Abstracts

A Comprehensive Investigation

of the Concept of Justice in Islam's View

Hamid Haji Heidar (Member of Department of Political Sciences in UCL; Member of Department of pitish Studies in Tehran University)

Establishing justice in Islamic society, which includes security and basic welfare, is a key duty for Islamic State along with preparing the ground for the economic growth of the Islamic society and spiritual growth of all its citizens. Though justice in Islamic society is among common discussions, hardly has there been a comprehensive research on the true meaning of justice and its principles.

The research scope of the present article is limited to the nature of justice among human beings and enumerating the principles of justice from viewpoint of Quran and Sunnah. To do so, justice is divided into primary essential attribution and common technical predication. The common element of all instances of justice is indiscrimination and the rule of law. Besides, different types of justice, i.e. preservative, criminal and distributive, each has an exclusive element, distinguishing it from other types. This article deals with an exposition of principles of these three types of justice.

KEY WORDS: justice, formal justice, substantive justice, political rivalry, social security, rule of law

Contents

A Comprehensive Investigation of the Concept of Justice in Islam's View / Hamid Haji Heidar 7

The Main Duties of Religious State in the Realm of Culture / Ali Asghar Khandan / Muslim Amiri Tayyibi 37

Justice and Duties of the Religious State / Masoud Ra'ie 69

An Introduction to the Religious State's Duties before People's Religion and Beliefs

/ Abul-Qasem Fatehi / Muhammad Javad Abul-Qasemi 101

The Strategy of Development in Religious State and Modernity / Alireza Muwaffaq 127

An Analysis of the State's Economical Duties for Realizing Economic Justice in Ideal Models of Islamic Economics / Mustafa Samiie Nasab 161

The Discourse of Justice in the Ninth State Cabinet / Bahram Akhawan Kazemi 195

In the name of Allah

Director-in-charge: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute

Managing Director and Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Javad Norozi

Editor: Manochehr Mohammadi

Editorial Board:

Dr. Hujjat allah Auubi :Assistant Professor

Dr. Ahmad Jahan Bozorgi: Assistant Professor

Dr. Mohammad Bagher Khoramshad: Associate Professor

Dr. Manochehr Mohammadi: Associate Professor

Dr. Davood Mahdavizadegan: Assistant Professor

Dr. Mozafar Namdar: Assistant Professor

Dr. Mohammad Rahim Eyvazi: Associate Professor

Mohammad Javad Norozi: Ph.D Student of Politics

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