An Inquiry into the Role of the Resources of Regional and International Climate in the Convergence between Amal Movement and Hezbollah

Hadi Ma'soomi Zare' / PhD student of political sciences, IKI              mh.masomi@gmail.com

Received: 2013-7-20 - Accepted: 2013-9-17


Amal Movement and Hezbollah of Lebanon had two different kinds of experience in their common life since mid-1980. The first was in 1980s, a period in which both sides were involved in the most violent clashed. However, both of them have come closer and closer towards convergence since the beginning of 1990. In the meantime, different factors like cognitive and environmental factors were behind the convergence between them. The factors which have to do with the regional and international climate are considered among the most important factors of their proximity. The joint efforts of Iran and Syria, Israel's repeated attacks against Lebanon, event of 2001, September 11 and the war which United States waged against Middle East, together with the continuous plots against the Syrian government as the strategic ally of these two movements are among the factors that contributed to the unity between Amal and Hezbollah. 

Key words: Amal, Hezbollah, convergence, relations, Syria, Iran.

Rational Freedom and Social Democracy

Farshad Shari'at / Faculty member of college of Islamic sciences and political sciences, Imam Sadiq University       Shariat@isu.ac.ir

Received: 2013-9-16 - Accepted: 2013-11-23


Dissecting the concept of democracy in the  classic literature of the West in three historical sections of the political philosophy of ancient Greece, Christian political philosophy and political philosophy of modern age, the present paper demonstrates why and how democracy in the political philosophy of the West  bears a meaning that is directed towards an ideal end. In other words, by dissecting the concept of democracy as a means or method for republic and by looking at democracy in the eyes of social democracy, it seeks to show that before its association to the form of the republic (community), democracy is related to a content whose ideal can be achieved by nothing but rational freedom. This paper seeks to demonstrate that Plato's theory of dutifulness, Aristotle's theory of humanitarianism and divine law-orientation which church members advocate are not essentially different from what is known as liberalism in modern time and after the formulation and of Hobbes and Locke's theories, in terms of their content. What is referred as liberalism or liberal democracy is something which has to do with content not with form, and so it can be reread in previous philosophers' view and reinterpreted in modern philosophers' view.

Key words: Greek democracy, rational freedom, church politics, social democracy.

A Study of the Future of the Islamic Revolution on the Basis of Three Predictions: Transmutation, Subjugation, and Perfection

Abuzar Mazaheri / Assistant professor of history of contemporary political thought, iki         

Received: 2012-3-2 - Accepted: 2013-11-10                                     mashrooteh@qabas.net


Today, the question of "the future of the Islamic Revolution" compared with the very Islamic Revolution is of great importance for analysts and researchers. Over thirty-year consistency of the Islamic Revolution naturally pushes aside "layman's invalid presumptions" and prepares the ground for "scholarly presumptions" or, in other words, for "futurology" of the Revolution.

The future of the Islamic Republic can be examined at three levels of possible future, probable future and ideal future. Among three possible and probable futures, that is, "normalization and transmutation of Revolution", "subjugation and control of Revolution" and "consistency, development and perfection of Revolution", the last one has more soundly based evidence. Furthermore, according to evolutionary movement of revolution during the five stages of revolution, system, government, nation and Islamic civilization together with the idea that the Revolution is at the beginning of third stage, the most probable future is creating an Islamic nation and civilization.

Key words: the Islamic Revolution, divine movement, possible, probable and ideal futures, the future of the revolution, Islamic civilization, transmutation of revolution, subjugation of revolution.

Imam Khomeini's Adoption of a Theological Approach to Challenge Secular Political Discourse

Ali Naqi Zabihzadeh / Faculty member of Qom Azad Islamic University nashrieh@qabas.net

Received: 27-5-2013 - Accepted: 2013-12-2                                                


One of the questions discussed in scientific circles is: how did Imam Khomeini succeed to challenge secular political thoughts which have governed the West since Middle Age and is still governing in modernity period, introduce the paradigm of theocratic guardianship, and establish it in Iran? The answer to this question is the achievement in strengthening the morale of the followers of Imam Khomeini's school to explain sociopolitical dimensions of manifest religion of Islam according to the method of Imam Khomeini who could contribute to resolving potential doubts. Using an analytical-descriptive and inductive method, the present paper elaborates on Imam Khomeini's theological analysis and rational thought and concludes that Imam Khomeini could introduce the theory of inseparability of Islam and politics and the theory of theocratic guardianship to opponent scholars only by adopting a theological approach to political thoughts, and overthrow dictatorship in Iran and free it from its colonization by establishing an Islamic government.

Key words: secular, Imam Khomeini, Islamic government, tyrannical, dictatorship, independence, colonization. 

Martyr Sadr and the Challenges Facing Islamic Society

Shamsollah Mariji / Associate professor of Baqir al-'Uloom University   mariji44@gmail.com

Received: 12-5-2013 - Accepted: 2013-11-26      


Human societies always face challenges and problems and their thinkers, in every period, make great efforts to smooth out the social difficulties by recognizing and solving these problems. In the meantime, there are very few thinkers who are successful in recognizing and solving these problems, but martyr Sadr can be regarded as one of the thinkers who somehow contributed to recognizing and solving these challenges. Reviewing this prominent researcher's works, the present paper demonstrate that martyr Sadr regards external hegemony and internal stereotypy and eclecticism as three damages suffered by Islamic society in relation to its thought and tries to avert these damage by providing his fiqhi (jurisprudential) and theological innovations. He thinks that after recognizing the challenges of politics and society, they can be overcome through introducing fiqhi (jurisprudential) theorization believes that the political problems of Islamic society can be solved by relying on this theory, Islamic government, Islamic unity, and referring to righteous authorities during occultation period (ghaybah).

Key words: pathology, stereotypy and eclecticism, Islamic government, Islamic unity, righteous religious authority, Islamic society.

The Necessity of Protecting Dar al-Islam (Abode of Islam, Muslim Territory) in the Political Thought and Conduct of the Author of 'Urvah

Mohammad Ali Mir'ali / Assistant professor of Al-Mustafa International University alimir124@gmail.com
A'zam Rezaei / Graduate of level three of Hawzah (Seminary)

Received: 2013-9-2 - Accepted: 2013-11-23


The confrontation of modern West with the Muslim world in modern time made religious scholars think of giving appropriate response to different events resulting from this confrontation in the different sociopolitical dimensions of Dar al-Islam, including scientific- cultural hegemony and military attacks, in order to protect the Islamic territory against the serious damages caused by the way of the attacks of infidels and enemy aliens. The late Seyyed Mohammad Kazim Tabatabaii Yazdi was among the religious scholars who made full-scale efforts to protect Islamic territory at his time. The present paper elaborates on Shiite jurists' fiqhi (legal) views, especially that of the author of 'Urvah, about the necessity to protect Dar al-Islam and makes reference to his most important political conduct which was mostly influenced by this fiqhi view.

Key words: Dar al-Islam, author of 'Urvah, protecting the system, political conduct, Shiite political fiqh (jurisprudence).